So the laws of refraction state that the angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the normal and the angle of refraction is the angle between the refracted ray and the normal. POLARIZATION AND HUYGEN’S THEORY OF DOUBLE REFRACTION Anuroop Ashok Ist Yr. B Tech 2. I am not sure that this is an explanation of why reflection and refraction happen the way they do as much as an interesting description of what happens in nature. Explanations of each of … In addition, we will see that Huygens’s principle tells us how and where light rays interfere. HUYGEN’S THEORY OF DOUBLE REFRACTION • According to Huygen’s theory , a point in a doubly refracting or birefringent crystal produces 2 types of wavefronts: The wavefront corresponding to the O-ray Spherical wavefront oThe ordinary wave travels with same velocity in all directions and so the corresponding wavefront is spherical. The law states that when light passes through different materials (for example from air to glass) the ratio of sines of the incidence (incoming) angle and the refraction (outgoing) angle does not change: HISTORICAL CONTEXT •Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be a stream of particles. Huygen’s Principle It states that each point of the wavefront is the source of the secondary wavelets which spread out in all direction with the speed of a wave.

In both cases, reflection and refraction, the route taken is such that the time taken is least.

Laws of Refraction on the Basis of Huygens’s Wave Theory. We will find it useful not only in describing how light waves propagate, but also in explaining the laws of reflection and refraction.

plane of the paper. Reflection of a plane wave using Huygens Principle. Huygens’s principle works for all types of waves, including water waves, sound waves, and light waves. Hence Snell’s Law of refraction is proved using Huygens’s principle. Points along the wavefront are treated as sources along the surface of the refractive medium, at which point the overall wave bends based upon the new medium.

(Explanation by Huygens' Principle) This applet is a tutorial which explains the reflection and the refraction of waves by the principle of Huygens. (Explanation by Huygens' Principle) This app is a sort of tutorial which explains the reflection and the refraction of waves by the principle of Huygens.Explanations of each of … Also the incident wavefront, the refracted wavefront and the normal lie in the same plane. Snell's law is the scientific law of the refraction of light or other waves.In optics, Snell's law is about the speed of light in different media. Similarly the incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane i.e. Huygens - Disregarded the overlapping of the wavelets in the region of geometric shadow.

Refraction using Huygen’s principle. 3.4 Huygens’ wave theory. Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocity of incident and reflected ray respectively such that (v 1 > v 2).At first, the wavefront A hits the surface PQ and then C reaches and hits at the last. In 1678, the Dutch natural philosopher Christiaan Huygens claimed to have disproved Newton’s theory by showing that the laws of reflection and refraction can be derived from his wave theory of light. Crystals belonging to the hexagonal, tetragonal, or rhombohedral classes are uniaxial, in that they possess a unique optical axis, most often coincident with the crystallographic axis. Huygens’ principle, in optics, a statement that all points of a wave front of light in a vacuum or transparent medium may be regarded as new sources of wavelets that expand in every direction at a rate depending on their velocities. At an instant, the wavelet to reach A’ from B, then BA’ = ct. During this time, the secondary if t is the time taken by the secondary wavelet originating at A has traveled a distance vt = AB’ in the denser medium. Huygens' Principle and Reflection/Refraction The laws of reflection and refraction can both be derived from Huygens' principle. Proposed by the Dutch mathematician, physicist, and astronomer, Christiaan Huygens, in 1690, it is a powerful method for studying various optical phenomena.